Vitreoretinal surgery techniques and instrumantations showed important developments recently. Despite these developments, sometimes we need another imaging tool during vitreoretinal surgery such as ophthalmic microendoscope. Endoscope serves not only for diagnostic purposes but also aids in vitreoretinal surgery as a surgical tool. Advantages of endoscopy in vitreoretinal surgery are visualization of inaccessible regions of the eye such as retroiridal area, ciliary processes, pars plana and peripheral retina and internal view despite various anterior segment opacities. The endoscope provides a clear view and to continue the surgery when these anterior segment conditions preclude the posterior viewing.

The types of ophthalmic microendoscopes are gradient index (GRIN) solid – rod and fiberoptic bundle. Despite many advantages of the endoscopes, there are some disadvantages such as complexity of setup, postoperative maintenance, additional cost, technical adaptation and learning curve, and absence of stereopsis.

Ophthalmic microendoscopy is a complementary method to modern vitreoretinal surgical techniques, and very useful to safely complete vitrectomy when operating microscope become insufficient. It often provides restoration of visualization in order to continue or complete necessary surgical maneuvers.

Key words: Vitreoretinal surgery, endoscopy, diagnostic vitrectomy,